Country Information: Peru

  • Capital: Lima
  • Area: 1,285,215 km²
  • Population: 29,546,963 inhabitants (2009)
  • Population density: 22 inhabitants per km ²
  • Religion: about 94% Christian   
  • Language: Spanish, Quechua and Aymara
  • Government: Republic semipräsidiale
  • Climate: varies
  • Unemployment: 8.1% (2008)

Size of the country

Peru is more than 3 times larger than Germany and is located on the west coast of South America. Peru has a large number of national parks, which are intended to preserve the beauty of nature and the biodiversity of wildlife and culture. Peru is bordered by Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Chile and the rest, large proportion of the coast.


About one-third of the population lives in Lima, the capital of Peru. The population of Peru is originating mainly from the "original inhabitants", which are the descendants of the population before the colonization. The average age is 24.60 years, so very young.

  • Slightly more than 40% are mestizos
  • About 30% of people of Indian descent (Quechua and Aymara speaking)
  • PApproximately 15% of European descent
  • About. 7% Afro-peruvean descent
  • Less than 5% people of Asian descent

Interesting is also a group of Indians, which is located on the border to Ecuador and live very isolated.


The official language in Peru is Spanish. 80% of the population speak Spanish as their native language. There are also languages ​​of the indigenous such as Quechua and Aymara, which are still very common.

Religions in Peru

More than 90% of Peru's population belong to Christianity, of which about 12% Protestant. In urban areas the proportion of Christians is a little bit higher than in rural. In rural areas there are more atheists or members of lesser-used and lesser-known religions.

The high proportion of Christians can be attributed to the Spanish conquest of Peru and missionary traced. Nevertheless, the culture of bygone days, from the time of the Inca empire, remained alive. Indeed the Christian festivals are mixed with ancient customs, such as the sun festival in Cusco.

Climate in Peru

The geography of Peru is very diverse and has 28 climate zones. The nature of the country can be divided into three groups: the coast, where most Peruvian cities are located; the highlands with breathtaking mountain scenery and picturesque villages and the jungle with a wide variety of plants and animals.


  • 20000-10000 BC The earliest traces of human habitation (pyramids, roads and yards procession)
  • 1700 BC, probably engravings of living culture in the Andes
  • 800 BC to 300 BC, the Chavin de Huantar high culture, development of cities
  • 1200 AD to 1532 AD, the Inca Empire with its capital in Cusco (Cuzco at the time)
  • Spanish Conquest in 1532 AD
  • 1780 AD 1824 Successful resistance against squatters revolt and independence of Peru
  • 1879 - 1883 Salpeterkrieg Peru, Chile, Bolivia 20 century beginning. Radicals, thoughtful national government with many changes
  • 1945 entry into the war, support for the Allies
  • 1968 Military Government of Peru
  • 1980s to 90s armed struggle of the guerrilla organization "Sendero Luminoso" ("Shining Path")
  • 1980 seizure of power by elected President

Economy and politics

The Peruvian economy is controlled more or less by North American and European companies. Peru is rich in minerals, particularly copper and gold. Besides raw materials are exported, such as coffee, but also other agricultural products. The main trading partners are by far the United States and China.

Political situation

Peru is a semi presidential Republic. This means that there are valid parliamentary and presidential elements. The french form of government is also an example..

The government in Peru is a decentralized basis, the principle of separation of powers is implemented and also representative. The state's interest can be designated as follows: the defense of sovereignty, protect the public, promote the general welfare.

09.04.2006 were in Peru presidential election, a parliamentary term is 5 years. In March 2006, Alan García Pérez, elected in the runoff election as president.

Tourism Peru

Peru is also becoming increasingly popular for tourists. The country offers a fascinating landscape and the Andes mountains and relics from the time of the Incas or cultural features in the repertoire. Above all, Machu Picchu, a well-preserved ruin of the Incas at 2,000 meters height. Very popular is also the Titicaca Lake.

Problems in Peru

  • Poverty
  • Democratic deficits
  • Natural disasters
  • Drug trafficking
  • Health and water supply